I have been reading about learning and transfer recently. There are many good articles that sum it up. This one from Wikipedia is one that does the job well.
Learning and transfer: implications for educational practice
- The necessity of initial learning;
- The importance of abstract and contextual knowledge;
- The conception of learning as an active and dynamic process; and
- The notion that all learning is transfer.
Enhancing transfer between school and every day life
- Collaboration: Various studies have proven that much work outside of school is done in groups. Students need exposure to this type of collaborative work in order to better transfer knowledge to non-classroom environments.
- Use of tools: Many school tasks require the use of the student mind whereas many non-classroom tasks allow and require the use of relevant tools. Increased student exposure to functional and relevant tools, such as technology, will only enhance transfer in the non-classroom setting.
- Contextualized Reasoning: Abstract reasoning is primarily reinforced in school, for example the use of mathematical formulas. In settings outside of school, such as the grocery store, people often use contextualized reasoning to solve various problems. Many adults are able to choose either context-based or abstract-based reasoning to cater to their specific need. The implementation of strategies for both types of reasoning will provide students with the opportunity to develop both equally and use both interchangeably outside of the school environment.
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI): designing for transfer with technology
Adults with Intellectual Disability
Overlap between situations, original and transfer contexts are similar.
Little overlap between situations, original and transfer settings are dissimilar.
What is learned in one context enhances learning in a different setting.
What is learned in one context hinders or delays learning in a different setting.
Knowledge of a previous topic is essential to acquire new knowledge.
Knowledge of a previous topic is not essential but helpful to learn a new topic.
Intact knowledge transfers to new task.
Use some aspect of general knowledge to think or learn about a problem.
Transfer of well-established skills in almost automatic fashion.
Transfer involves abstraction so conscious formulations of connections between contexts.
High Road/Forward Reaching
Abstracting situations from a learning context to a potential transfer context.
High Road/Backward Reaching
Abstracting in the transfer context features of a previous situation where new skills and knowledge were learned.
- The knowledge and skills related to school mathematics help in the learning of statistical computation;
- The knowledge and skills acquired in terms of addition and subtraction in mathematics in school may help a child in the acquisition of knowledge and skills regarding multiplication and division;
- Learning to play badminton may help an individual to play ping pong (Table Tennis) and lawn tennis.